Sustainable Structures and Materials, An International Journal http://ssmij.org/index.php/ssm en-US Sustainable Structures and Materials, An International Journal 2616-4779 Simplified Global Analysis of Steel Pipe-Racks Subject To Accidental Vapor Cloud Blast Explosions http://ssmij.org/index.php/ssm/article/view/66 <p><em>Vapor cloud blast explosions are very common in operating refineries and industrial plants. Limited guidelines are available in industry for design steel modules or pipe-racks subject to blast loading. </em><em>The paper aims to provide industrial guidelines for practicing engineers and steel fabricators to optimize the design of steel modules and pipe-racks subject to blast loading. Simplified procedure is presented to evaluate global dynamic response of steel pipe-racks and modules that are commonly used in petrochemical plants and refineries. The loading conditions and structural design criteria are first presented. The formation mechanism of vapour cloud </em><em>explosions is then briefly described. Numerical example is then provided to illustrate the computation procedure. The approximate procedure avoids excessive computational cost required by numerical procedures and can be used in practice to evaluate dynamic response of pipe-rack subject to vapor cloud blast loading.</em></p> Osama Bedair ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-18 2020-10-18 3 2 1 12 10.26392/SSM.2020.03.02.001 Thermal Ageing Effect on Electro-Mechanical Properties of Work Hardened High Conductive Copper Based Material http://ssmij.org/index.php/ssm/article/view/70 <p><em>High conductive materials may undergo work hardening in the process of manufacturing and utilization as machine parts. Moreover, these materials face various thermal conditions at operational environment. As a consequence, the electro-mechanical properties of these materials get changed, which in turn affect their operational ability as these materials need to maintain high conductivity along with desirable mechanical properties. It gratifies to investigate the effect of thermal ageing on the electro-mechanical properties and microstructure of high conductive copper based material. In this work, the samples are prepared from copper ingot and alloy collected from local market. From the bulk material, long bars are taken, and they are at first homogenized and solution treated, and then they have been work hardened at different level in two conditions i.e., at room temperature and near recrystallization temperature. Thereafter, a series of experiments are carried out to determine the changes in conductivity, micro-hardness, strength, elongation and microstructure of samples as a function of thermal ageing temperature. Most of the mechanical properties after thermal ageing are found to be influenced quite significantly by work hardening.</em> <em>&nbsp;&nbsp;</em></p> M Muzibur Rahman S Reaz Ahmed M Salim Kaiser ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-25 2021-04-25 3 2 13 22 10.26392/SSM.2020.03.02.013 SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION PRACTICES IN ROAD CONSTRCUTION http://ssmij.org/index.php/ssm/article/view/71 <p><em>Sustainable construction has been gaining importance due to the effects of climate change we experience globally. The effects are pronounced day by day. The construction sector is growing globally in a paced manner, particularly in developing countries. The construction sector is the largest consumer of energy, particularly fossil fuels. The prime among the construction sector is pavement construction, providing connectivity to places. Hence it is paramount to practice sustainable principles in road construction. This paper investigates the use of alternate sustainable construction materials in road construction. </em></p> Balaji venakteswaran chandrasekaran ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-25 2021-04-25 3 2 23 28 10.26392/SSM.2020.03.02.023 Effects of Jujube Seed on the Mechanical Properties of the Normal Strength Concrete http://ssmij.org/index.php/ssm/article/view/SSM.2020.03.02.029 <p><em>The effects of </em><em>jujube seed (JB) as partial replacement of coarse aggregate in concrete production was investigated. Physical properties of jujube seed and coarse aggregate were evaluated and compared. The concrete mix proportion of ratio 1:2:4 was adopted in the study. A total of 45 concrete cube specimens of size 150 × 150 ×150 mm<sup>3</sup> with various percentages replacement by weight of coarse aggregate to jujube seeds as coarse aggregate in the order 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% water cured for a maximum of 28 days. The densities and compressive strengths of the reference sample and the concretes mixed with partial replacement were evaluated. The results showed no significant change in concretes' densities with the partial replacement of aggregate up to 20%.&nbsp;&nbsp; The compressive strength of specimens with percentage replacement of coarse aggregate with jujube seeds at 20% for 7, 14, and 28 days curing age was found to be 6.7 MPa, 11.3 MPa, and 21.6 MPa, respectively. This shows that the compressive strengths at 28 days curing are entirely satisfactory within the range of compressive strength requirements of plain and reinforced concrete structure. &nbsp;The Jujube Seeds could partly be used to replace coarse aggregate up to 20% in the production of concrete where it is easily accessible and can be recommended as an alternative material to coarse aggregate mostly in tropical Africa and Asia region.</em></p> Musa Adamu Sadi Ibrahim Haruna Abdulhakeem Lawal AIB Farouk Mustapha Abdulhadi Salim Idris Malami ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-16 2021-05-16 3 2 29 38