http://ssmij.org/index.php/ssm/issue/feed Sustainable Structures and Materials, An International Journal 2019-06-06T11:06:20-04:00 Mohammad Ali Mosaberpanah editor@ssmij.org Open Journal Systems http://ssmij.org/index.php/ssm/article/view/25 Concrete Technology and Sustainably Development from Past to Future 2019-05-01T13:07:06-04:00 Rustam Hafizyar rustamr323@gmail.com Mahmood Hunar Dheyaaldin mahmoud.hunar@gmail.com <p><em>A large number of concrete production today has a bad effect on environment resource and energy. Thus this issue of concrete technologies have an impact on the environment which is a critical problem in global warming. The current paper reviews the concrete technology and sustainable development from past to future and investigates sustainable concrete and material practice. Although while comparing these factors with the past, current and future prospective concrete sustainability development, this research found that the main cause of global warming is </em><em>&nbsp;emission during concrete and cement production. The solution of environment problem is not to replace the concrete by other substances and it can reduce the amount of cement with cementitious materials. The best approach for reducing the amount of &nbsp;</em><em>&nbsp;in environments is using Pozzolanic material and waste material, which both plays a vital role in the sustainable concrete structure.</em></p> 2019-05-01T12:57:43-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://ssmij.org/index.php/ssm/article/view/40 Statistical Evaluation of Compressive Strength in High Performance Concrete (HPC) with Steel Fiber Addition 2019-05-01T13:54:47-04:00 Abdulhameed Umar Abubakar abdulhameed.umar@mautech.edu.ng <p><em>In this study, statistical analysis of High performance concrete (HPC) with steel fiber addition at 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, &amp; 1.50 % was evaluated each with a sample size (N) of 50 using 100 mm side cubes. Normality test and screening was done on the data set, frequency histogram with superimposed normal distribution curve plotted, as well as P-value compared with the significance level. Other parameters investigated were confidence interval and probability plot. It was seen that the data does not follow the normal distribution because the data float around the ideal normal curve, P-value is less than the significance level and Anderson-darling is high. An attempt was made to transform the data set for Goodness of fit using Johnson Transformation, and it was seen that the P-value significantly improved. Overall, an improvement in the mean compressive strength is observed with increase in fiber addition by utilizing large sample size. </em></p> 2019-05-01T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://ssmij.org/index.php/ssm/article/view/39 Stabilization of Soft Soil by Incinerated Sewage Sludge Ash from Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant for Engineering Construction 2019-05-01T13:57:36-04:00 Ahmad Hussaini Jagaba ahjagaba@atbu.edu.ng Abbas Shuaibu AbbasShuaibu@gmail.com Ibrahim Umaru IbrahimUmaru@gmail.com Saifullahi Musa SaifullahiMusa@gmail.com Ibrahim Mohammed Lawal IbrahimMohammedLawal@gmail.com Sule Abubakar SuleAbubakar@gmail.com <p><em>Effective Management of Municipal Solid Waste cannot be achieved without involving wastewater treatment plants as they generate sludge that must be disposed of in an environmentally friendly manner. Therefore, recycling or reusing them are the preferred options for sustainable development. The study presented the use of incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) as a soil stabilizing agent. Oxide compositions were determined by the X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). Result showed that ISSA contains Silicon oxide, SiO<sub>2</sub> (61.42 %), Aluminum oxide Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3 </sub>(23.51 %) and Iron oxide, Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3 </sub>(4.24 %) in high proportion. Clay soil with low to medium plasticity (CL) from an A-7-6 group was replaced with 0 % 3 %, 5 %, 7 % and 10 % ISSA. Test such as California Bearing Ratio (CBR), Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS), Compaction and Atterberg limit were conducted. Soil obtained lowest OMC and highest MDD values both at 7% ash content. PI dramatically reduced at short extension of curing age from 21 % to 7 % at 10 % ISSA content thereby improving it from category A7 to A2. With 2.25 % at 3 days realized as the maximum value for resistance to loss in strength, durability requirement is satisfied. ISSA effectively raised CBR values of soil from 15.6 % to 19.5 %, 32.6 %, 47.9 % and 46.4 % respectively with 7 % ISSA additive yielding best result. Therefore, the study concludes that 7 % ISSA additive effectively enhance the strength of soft soils.</em></p> 2019-05-01T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://ssmij.org/index.php/ssm/article/view/38 Trends and developments in green cement “A sustainable approach” 2019-05-01T13:52:26-04:00 Aamar Danish aamardanish@gmail.com Muhammad Usama Salim usama.rao008@gmail.com Talha Ahmed talhaak195@gmail.com <p><em>It is evident from the history of cement that it’s a vital construction material but its hazardous effects on environment cannot be ignored. Cement production causes serious environmental damages from its production to disposal which includes carbon dioxide emissions, noise/vibration pollution and damage to natural rocks (during extraction of raw materials from quarries). Cement is considered to be the third largest (man-made) source of greenhouse gas due to emission of carbon dioxide in atmosphere. The harmful effects of cement are encouraging the construction industry to use new cementitious materials without compromising cost and quality. Efforts are being made to develop supplementary cementitious materials using domestic, agricultural and industrial wastes and also recycled materials. This review study presents a concise review of current efforts for undermining production and use of cement. This paper will also highlight some important green alternatives for cement which include energy effective, low carbon production, no carbon cements and inorganic materials.</em></p> <p><br> <strong>Keywords</strong><strong>:</strong>&nbsp; Cement, Carbon, Hazardous Effects, Energy, Cementitious Materials</p> 2019-05-01T13:52:26-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://ssmij.org/index.php/ssm/article/view/31 Review on Properties, Performance, and Application of Geopolymer Concrete 2019-06-06T11:06:20-04:00 AYA AHMAD aya_ahmad20@hotmail.com Abdulrahman Alsaid alkrsann@gmail.com <p><em>Concrete infectious together with normal Portland cement (PC) is notable on the planet for its reliability, durability, and versatility. PC concrete is the second most used material next to w</em></p> <p><em>Concrete infectious together with normal Portland cement (PC) is notable on the planet for its reliability, durability, and versatility. PC concrete is the second most used material next to water. Even though OPC is so popular in construction, it is not ecofriendly due to enormous energy consumption in its production and due to emission of enormous </em><em>CO<sub>2</sub></em><em>.This is a serious challenge to sustainable development. Endeavors are expected to build up a natural amicable structural designing development material for limiting the emission of greenhouse gases to the environment. The Endeavour to develop an environment friendly concrete had offered many alternatives. One eminent among them is zero cement concrete. Zero Cement Concrete is an improved version of Geo-polymer Concrete wherein the thermal activation of the binding materials such as GGBS and FA are done with the help of alkaline solution namely (NaOH) and (</em><em>Na<sub>2</sub>SiO<sub>3</sub></em><em>). Contrasting to (PC), the creation of geopolymers has a relatively higher quality of strength, durability, and workability. This current paper is a review on geopolymer concrete properties. </em></p> <p><em>ater. Even though OPC is so popular in construction, it is not ecofriendly due to enormous energy consumption in its production and due to emission of enormous </em><em>CO<sub>2</sub></em><em>.This is a serious challenge to sustainable development. Endeavors are expected to build up a natural amicable structural designing development material for limiting the emission of greenhouse gases to the environment. The Endeavour to develop an environment friendly concrete had offered many alternatives. One eminent among them is zero cement concrete. Zero Cement Concrete is an improved version of Geo-polymer Concrete wherein the thermal activation of the binding materials such as GGBS and FA are done with the help of alkaline solution namely (NaOH) and (</em><em>Na<sub>2</sub>SiO<sub>3</sub></em><em>). Contrasting to (PC), the creation of geopolymers has a relatively higher quality of strength, durability, and workability. This current paper is a review on geopolymer concrete properties. </em></p> 2019-06-06T11:05:47-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##