http://ssmij.org/index.php/ssm/issue/feed Sustainable Structures and Materials, An International Journal 2019-07-24T08:16:36-04:00 Mohammad Ali Mosaberpanah editor@ssmij.org Open Journal Systems http://ssmij.org/index.php/ssm/article/view/25 Concrete Technology and Sustainably Development from Past to Future 2019-05-01T13:07:06-04:00 Rustam Hafizyar rustamr323@gmail.com Mahmood Hunar Dheyaaldin mahmoud.hunar@gmail.com <p><em>A large number of concrete production today has a bad effect on environment resource and energy. Thus this issue of concrete technologies have an impact on the environment which is a critical problem in global warming. The current paper reviews the concrete technology and sustainable development from past to future and investigates sustainable concrete and material practice. Although while comparing these factors with the past, current and future prospective concrete sustainability development, this research found that the main cause of global warming is </em><em>&nbsp;emission during concrete and cement production. The solution of environment problem is not to replace the concrete by other substances and it can reduce the amount of cement with cementitious materials. The best approach for reducing the amount of &nbsp;</em><em>&nbsp;in environments is using Pozzolanic material and waste material, which both plays a vital role in the sustainable concrete structure.</em></p> 2019-05-01T12:57:43-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://ssmij.org/index.php/ssm/article/view/40 Statistical Evaluation of Compressive Strength in High Performance Concrete (HPC) with Steel Fiber Addition 2019-05-01T13:54:47-04:00 Abdulhameed Umar Abubakar abdulhameed.umar@mautech.edu.ng <p><em>In this study, statistical analysis of High performance concrete (HPC) with steel fiber addition at 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, &amp; 1.50 % was evaluated each with a sample size (N) of 50 using 100 mm side cubes. Normality test and screening was done on the data set, frequency histogram with superimposed normal distribution curve plotted, as well as P-value compared with the significance level. Other parameters investigated were confidence interval and probability plot. It was seen that the data does not follow the normal distribution because the data float around the ideal normal curve, P-value is less than the significance level and Anderson-darling is high. An attempt was made to transform the data set for Goodness of fit using Johnson Transformation, and it was seen that the P-value significantly improved. Overall, an improvement in the mean compressive strength is observed with increase in fiber addition by utilizing large sample size. </em></p> 2019-05-01T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://ssmij.org/index.php/ssm/article/view/39 Stabilization of Soft Soil by Incinerated Sewage Sludge Ash from Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant for Engineering Construction 2019-05-01T13:57:36-04:00 Ahmad Hussaini Jagaba ahjagaba@atbu.edu.ng Abbas Shuaibu AbbasShuaibu@gmail.com Ibrahim Umaru IbrahimUmaru@gmail.com Saifullahi Musa SaifullahiMusa@gmail.com Ibrahim Mohammed Lawal IbrahimMohammedLawal@gmail.com Sule Abubakar SuleAbubakar@gmail.com <p><em>Effective Management of Municipal Solid Waste cannot be achieved without involving wastewater treatment plants as they generate sludge that must be disposed of in an environmentally friendly manner. Therefore, recycling or reusing them are the preferred options for sustainable development. The study presented the use of incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) as a soil stabilizing agent. Oxide compositions were determined by the X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). Result showed that ISSA contains Silicon oxide, SiO<sub>2</sub> (61.42 %), Aluminum oxide Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3 </sub>(23.51 %) and Iron oxide, Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3 </sub>(4.24 %) in high proportion. Clay soil with low to medium plasticity (CL) from an A-7-6 group was replaced with 0 % 3 %, 5 %, 7 % and 10 % ISSA. Test such as California Bearing Ratio (CBR), Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS), Compaction and Atterberg limit were conducted. Soil obtained lowest OMC and highest MDD values both at 7% ash content. PI dramatically reduced at short extension of curing age from 21 % to 7 % at 10 % ISSA content thereby improving it from category A7 to A2. With 2.25 % at 3 days realized as the maximum value for resistance to loss in strength, durability requirement is satisfied. ISSA effectively raised CBR values of soil from 15.6 % to 19.5 %, 32.6 %, 47.9 % and 46.4 % respectively with 7 % ISSA additive yielding best result. Therefore, the study concludes that 7 % ISSA additive effectively enhance the strength of soft soils.</em></p> 2019-05-01T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://ssmij.org/index.php/ssm/article/view/38 Trends and developments in green cement “A sustainable approach” 2019-05-01T13:52:26-04:00 Aamar Danish aamardanish@gmail.com Muhammad Usama Salim usama.rao008@gmail.com Talha Ahmed talhaak195@gmail.com <p><em>It is evident from the history of cement that it’s a vital construction material but its hazardous effects on environment cannot be ignored. Cement production causes serious environmental damages from its production to disposal which includes carbon dioxide emissions, noise/vibration pollution and damage to natural rocks (during extraction of raw materials from quarries). Cement is considered to be the third largest (man-made) source of greenhouse gas due to emission of carbon dioxide in atmosphere. The harmful effects of cement are encouraging the construction industry to use new cementitious materials without compromising cost and quality. Efforts are being made to develop supplementary cementitious materials using domestic, agricultural and industrial wastes and also recycled materials. This review study presents a concise review of current efforts for undermining production and use of cement. This paper will also highlight some important green alternatives for cement which include energy effective, low carbon production, no carbon cements and inorganic materials.</em></p> <p><br> <strong>Keywords</strong><strong>:</strong>&nbsp; Cement, Carbon, Hazardous Effects, Energy, Cementitious Materials</p> 2019-05-01T13:52:26-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://ssmij.org/index.php/ssm/article/view/31 Review on Properties, Performance, and Application of Geopolymer Concrete 2019-06-06T11:06:20-04:00 AYA AHMAD aya_ahmad20@hotmail.com Abdulrahman Alsaid alkrsann@gmail.com <p><em>Concrete infectious together with normal Portland cement (PC) is notable on the planet for its reliability, durability, and versatility. PC concrete is the second most used material next to w</em></p> <p><em>Concrete infectious together with normal Portland cement (PC) is notable on the planet for its reliability, durability, and versatility. PC concrete is the second most used material next to water. Even though OPC is so popular in construction, it is not ecofriendly due to enormous energy consumption in its production and due to emission of enormous </em><em>CO<sub>2</sub></em><em>.This is a serious challenge to sustainable development. Endeavors are expected to build up a natural amicable structural designing development material for limiting the emission of greenhouse gases to the environment. The Endeavour to develop an environment friendly concrete had offered many alternatives. One eminent among them is zero cement concrete. Zero Cement Concrete is an improved version of Geo-polymer Concrete wherein the thermal activation of the binding materials such as GGBS and FA are done with the help of alkaline solution namely (NaOH) and (</em><em>Na<sub>2</sub>SiO<sub>3</sub></em><em>). Contrasting to (PC), the creation of geopolymers has a relatively higher quality of strength, durability, and workability. This current paper is a review on geopolymer concrete properties. </em></p> <p><em>ater. Even though OPC is so popular in construction, it is not ecofriendly due to enormous energy consumption in its production and due to emission of enormous </em><em>CO<sub>2</sub></em><em>.This is a serious challenge to sustainable development. Endeavors are expected to build up a natural amicable structural designing development material for limiting the emission of greenhouse gases to the environment. The Endeavour to develop an environment friendly concrete had offered many alternatives. One eminent among them is zero cement concrete. Zero Cement Concrete is an improved version of Geo-polymer Concrete wherein the thermal activation of the binding materials such as GGBS and FA are done with the help of alkaline solution namely (NaOH) and (</em><em>Na<sub>2</sub>SiO<sub>3</sub></em><em>). Contrasting to (PC), the creation of geopolymers has a relatively higher quality of strength, durability, and workability. This current paper is a review on geopolymer concrete properties. </em></p> 2019-06-06T11:05:47-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://ssmij.org/index.php/ssm/article/view/SSM.2019.02.01.076 Study on Self-healing Concrete types – A review 2019-06-27T02:29:33-04:00 Ishraq Mohammad Khattab khattabishraq@gmail.com Hazhar Shekha hazhar.hamad@gmail.com Mohammed Abukar Abdi aboubakerabdihoch@gmail.com <p><em>The most popular treatment for concrete structure is self-healing method to enhance the durability of concrete. The relevance between cracks and conceivable self-healing method is sophisticated and environmentally considered. This current paper a review on biological, natural and chemical mechanism of self-healing concrete was deeply evaluated from past journal was published about them and the main purposed of this paper as focuses on biological processes of self-healing concrete.&nbsp; The data introduced in current study as huge substantial for bioprocess and biotechnologists engineer to provide useful details on present condition of self-healing concrete. </em></p> 2019-06-27T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://ssmij.org/index.php/ssm/article/view/47 Characteristics of Different Type of Coarse Aggregate on Properties of High Performance Concrete 2019-07-24T08:16:36-04:00 Nasir Kabir naskabirnasir@gmail.com Sani Aliyu esaliyu0@gmail.com Mohammed Abdu Nasara mohammad.nasara@gmail.com Adamu Umar Chinade umarchinade@atbu.edu.ng Aminu Shehu aminusky1001@gmail.com <p><em>The weakest links of conventional cement concrete is often occurred at the transition zone around coarse aggregate particles and the bulk of the compressive load is also borne by the cement paste. However, in special concrete such as High Strength Concrete (HSC) and High Performance Concrete (HPC) where, the water/cement ratio is low and high content of cement constitute their characteristics, the bulk compressive load is borne by the aggregate. Therefore, the failure in such concrete is mostly through the aggregate. This study discussed the characteristics of different type of coarse aggregate with distinct size range, 20-14mm and 10-5mm on properties of high performance concrete. In this project, investigation such as Slump test and Unit weight were carried out on fresh properties, and also compressive strength and water absorption on hardened properties, in which, readings were taken at curing days of 7 days, 14 days, and 28 days. The water to cement ratio used is 0.35, 1% super plasticizer of&nbsp; Conplast SP-430 were added, and the dosage of meta kaolin added was&nbsp; 0%, 7.5% and 15%. The HPC mix, grade M40concrete is designed as per ACI method. The result of the study indicated that the compressive strength increases with an increase in percentage of Metakaolin between 0% to 15% replacements. Basalt-mixed concrete gives higher compressive strength, followed by gneiss-mixed concrete, then granite-mixed concrete. It was also discovered that larger aggregate sizes (20mm-14mm) gives high compressive strength than smaller sizes (5mm-10mm). Therefore for optimum performance up to 15% replacement of Metakaolin can be used with 20mm-14mm sizes of basalt aggregate.</em></p> 2019-07-24T08:14:34-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##